10) Endorsement of a Writ de Expensis.
A certain part of the county of Leicester is within the liberties
of the Honours of Leicester, Winchester and Peverel, as a result of which
this writ was passed on to the bailiffs of the aforesaid liberties, for
the parts of the liberties on which a levy was to be made according to
the terms of the writ, namely 4d on each carucate of land in the county,
whether within liberties or without, by the assessment of all the community
made in the full county court, which same bailiffs reply to me that none
living within the aforesaid liberties is bound not willing to make any
contribution to such expenses as are contained in this writ. Therefore
nothing can be done at present, but this writ in the aforesaid liberties.
DOC 11) Writ of Summons to a Baron and Endorsements
Edward by the Grace of God king of England, Lord of Ireland and Duke
of Aquitaine to his beloved and faithful Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford,
greeting. Since we have decided that our eldest son Edward shall be girded
with the belt of knighthood at Whitsun next, God willing, and since an
aid is due to us on such an occasion according to the rights of our crown,
we command you and firmly enjoin you by the fealty and homage which you
hold towards us that you be present in your own person before us and our
council at Westminster, on the day after Trinity Sunday, to discuss with
the prelates and magnates and great men of the kingdom and to decide should
be done about an aid to us in this case, and to consent to whatever shall
be decided in this matter. Alternatively you may send attorneys, having
sufficient authority and instructions from you, to do the same. And send
this writ back. Witness myself at Winchester 5th day of April in the thirty
fourth year of our reign.
Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, has deputed to act in his place John
de Wascoyl and John Bouser.
16) Writ to Archbishop Winchelsey giving the
Quod Omnes Tangit formula, 1295.
The king to the venerable father in Christ Robert, by the same grace
Archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, greeting. As
a most just law, established by the careful providence of sacred princes,
exhorts and decrees that what affects all, by all should be approved (Quod
omnes tangit ab omnes debet approbetur), so also, very evidently should
common danger be met by means provided in common. You know sufficiently
well and it is now as we believe, divulged through all regions of the world,
how the king of France has fraudulently and craftily deprived us of our
land in Gascony.. He has gathered together for the conquest of our kingdom
a very great fleet and an abounding multitude of warriors... and he now
proposes to destroy the English language altogether from the earth...,
if his power should correspond to the detestable proposition of the contemplated
injustice, which God forbid. Because, therefore, 'darts seen beforehand
do less injury', and your interest especially, as that of the rest of the
citizens of this same realm, is concerned in this affair, we command you,
strictly enjoining you in the fidelity and love in which you are bound
to us, that on Sunday next after the feast of St Martin, in the approaching
winter, you be present in person at Westminster, citing beforehand (praemunientes)
the dean and chapter of your church ..(and the proctors of the lower clergy)
to be present along with you, having full and sufficient power from the
same chapter and clergy to 'treat' ordain and do, along with the rest of
the prelates and principal men and other inhabitants of our kingdom, how
dangers and threatened evils of this kind are to be met, Witness the king
at Wingham, the thirteenth day of September...
BIBLIOGRAPHY (in order of historiography)
REPRESENTATIVES OF COMMUNITIES OF SHIRE AND BOROUGH
Stubbs, W. (1874) Constitutional History of England (3 vols. Oxford,
1874-8 and new editions to 1895-7).
Riess, L.: (1885) History of English Electoral Law (trans. G. Wood-Leigh,
1940). (See G.L. Haskins, Petitions of Representatives)
Pasquet D., (1914) Origins of the House of Commons (English translation
1952, reprinted 1964), Ch. II.
Edwards J.G. (1925) , 'Personnel of the Commons in Parliament under Edward
I and II', Essays presented to T.F. Tout
Edwards J.G.,(1926) 'Re-election and the Medieval Parliament', History
xi pp. 204-210.
Morris, W.A., (1927) The Medieval English Sheriff (reprint 1967)
Stephenson, C. (1929) 'Taxation and Representation in the Middle Ages',
Essays in Medieval History by students of Charles Homer Haskins re-printed
in Medieval Institutions , pp. 104-125.
McKisack M.,(1932) The Parliamentary Representation of English Boroughs
during the Middle Ages (reprinted 1962).
Willard, J.F. (l934) Parliamentary Taxes on Personal Property, 1290-1334
Haskins, G.L., (1938) 'Petitions of Representatives in the Parliaments
of Edward I', E.H.R., liii , 1-20. (Effectively limited to period
Stephenson C., (1938) 'The Beginnings of Representative Government in England',
Morris, W.A., (1943) 'Magnates and Community of the Realm in Parliament
Medievalia et Humanistica
H.M. Cam, (1944) Liberties and Communities in Medieval England (reprinted
1964). Collected essays include: xv. The relation of English M.P.s, to
their constituencies in the fourteenth century. xvi. The community of the
Shire and the payment of its representatives.
Denholm Young N. (1946) 'Feudal Society in the thirteenth century, the
knights', History xxix (1944), also in N. Denholm Young Collected
Treharne R.F., (1946) 'The Knights in the period of Reform and Rebellion,
1258- 1267', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research
Haskins, G.L., (1948) Growth of English Representative Government
Lapsley G.T., (1951) Crown, Community and Parliament in the Later Middle
Ages . Collected Essays including:- iii. Buzones. Also in E.H.R.
iv. Knights of the Shire in the Parliaments of Edward II. Also in E.H.R.
Miller E., (1952) 'The State and Landed Interests in Thirteenth Century
France and England',
T.R.H.S., 5th ser., ii Reprinted in Change
in Medieval Society, ed. Sylvia Thrupp (1964).
Edwards, J.G. (1958) The Commons in Medieval English Parliaments (1957
Creighton Lecture, (about inter-communing).
Edwards, J.G. (1960). Historians and the Medieval English Parliament
Miller E. (1961) The Origins of Parliament (Historical Association
Cam H.M., (1962) Law Finders and Law Makers in Medieval England Collected
Essays include:-vii. From witness of the Shire to Full Parliament. ix.
Theory and Practice of Representation in Medieval England.
Miller E., (1964) 'The English Economy in the Thirteenth Century: Implications
of Recent Research', Past and Present, xxviii
Spufford P., (1967) The Origins of Parliament
Knowles C.H. (1968) 'Provisions for the Montfortians Disinherited after
the Battle of Evesham', Thirteenth Century England I ed., P.R. Coss
and S.D. Lloyd.
Miller E. & Fryde E.B. (1970), Historical Studies of the English
Parliament. (Collected Essays)
Wilkinson B. (1973) The Creation of the Medieval Parliaments
Coss P.R.., 'Sir Geoffrey Langley and the Crisis of the Knighttly class
in Thirteenth Century England', Past & Present 68.
Myers A.R. (1975) Parliaments and Estates in Medieval Europe
Illsley J.S., (1976) 'Parliamentary Elections in the reign of Edward I',
Denton J.H. & Davies R.G. (1981) The English Parliament in the Middle
Ages. cap 5
Knowles C.H. (1982), 'The resettlement of England after the Barons' War,
1264-67;, T.R.H.S. xxxii.
Palmer R.C., (1982) The County Courts in Medieval England 1150-1350.
Richardson H.G. & Sayles G.O. (1981) The English Parliament in the
Coss P. (1991) Lordship, Knighthood and Locality: a study in English
Society 1180-1280. Cambridge.
Illsley, J.S. 'The Medieval Gentry and the English Constitution. From the
Conquest to the reign of Edward I' Medieval History (1993) vol 1